Table_1_Unified Deep Learning-Based Mouse Brain MR Segmentation: Template-Based Individual Brain Positron Emission Tomography Volumes-of-Interest Generation Without Spatial Normalization in Mouse Alzheimer Model.docx
Although skull-stripping and brain region segmentation are essential for precise quantitative analysis of positron emission tomography (PET) of mouse brains, deep learning (DL)-based unified solutions, particularly for spatial normalization (SN), have posed a challenging problem in DL-based image processing. In this study, we propose an approach based on DL to resolve these issues. We generated both skull-stripping masks and individual brain-specific volumes-of-interest (VOIs—cortex, hippocampus, striatum, thalamus, and cerebellum) based on inverse spatial normalization (iSN) and deep convolutional neural network (deep CNN) models. We applied the proposed methods to mutated amyloid precursor protein and presenilin-1 mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease. Eighteen mice underwent T2-weighted MRI and 18F FDG PET scans two times, before and after the administration of human immunoglobulin or antibody-based treatments. For training the CNN, manually traced brain masks and iSN-based target VOIs were used as the label. We compared our CNN-based VOIs with conventional (template-based) VOIs in terms of the correlation of standardized uptake value ratio (SUVR) by both methods and two-sample t-tests of SUVR % changes in target VOIs before and after treatment. Our deep CNN-based method successfully generated brain parenchyma mask and target VOIs, which shows no significant difference from conventional VOI methods in SUVR correlation analysis, thus establishing methods of template-based VOI without SN.