Table_1_Ultrasonography-based radiomics and computer-aided diagnosis in thyroid nodule management: performance comparison and clinical strategy optimization.docx
To compare ultrasonography (US) feature-based radiomics and computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) models for predicting malignancy in thyroid nodules, and to evaluate their utility for thyroid nodule management.Methods
This prospective study included 262 thyroid nodules obtained between January 2022 and June 2022. All nodules previously underwent standardized US image acquisition, and the nature of the nodules was confirmed by the pathological results. The CAD model exploited two vertical US images of the thyroid nodule to differentiate the lesions. The least absolute shrinkage and operator algorithm (LASSO) was applied to choose radiomics features with excellent predictive properties for building a radiomics model. Ultimately, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) and calibration curves were assessed to compare diagnostic performance between the models. DeLong’s test was used to analyze the difference between groups. Both models were used to revise the American College of Radiology Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data Systems (ACR TI-RADS) to provide biopsy recommendations, and their performance was compared with the original recommendations.Results
Of the 262 thyroid nodules, 157 were malignant, and the remaining 105 were benign. The diagnostic performance of radiomics, CAD, and ACR TI-RADS models had an AUC of 0.915 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.881–0.947), 0.814 (95% CI: 0.766–0.863), and 0.849 (95% CI: 0.804–0.894), respectively. DeLong’s test showed a statistically significant between the AUC values of models (p < 0.05). Calibration curves showed good agreement in each model. When both models were applied to revise the ACR TI-RADS, our recommendations significantly improved the performance. The revised recommendations based on radiomics and CAD showed an increased sensitivity, accuracy, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value, and decreased unnecessary fine-needle aspiration rates. Furthermore, the radiomics model’s improvement scale was more pronounced (33.3–16.7% vs. 33.3–9.7%).Conclusion
The radiomics strategy and CAD system showed good diagnostic performance for discriminating thyroid nodules and could be used to optimize the ACR TI-RADS recommendation, which successfully reduces unnecessary biopsies, especially in the radiomics model.