Table_1_Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus-Resistant and -Susceptible Tomato Genotypes Similarly Impact the Virus Population Genetics.XLS (90 kB)
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Table_1_Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus-Resistant and -Susceptible Tomato Genotypes Similarly Impact the Virus Population Genetics.XLS

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posted on 07.12.2020, 04:27 by Wendy G. Marchant, Saurabh Gautam, Samuel F. Hutton, Rajagopalbabu Srinivasan

Tomato yellow leaf curl virus is a species in the genus Begomovirus and family Geminiviridae. Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) infection induces severe symptoms on tomato plants and causes serious yield losses worldwide. TYLCV is persistently transmitted by the sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius). Cultivars and hybrids with a single or few genes conferring resistance against TYLCV are often planted to mitigate TYLCV-induced losses. These resistant genotypes (cultivars or hybrids) are not immune to TYLCV. They typically develop systemic infection, display mild symptoms, and produce more marketable tomatoes than susceptible genotypes under TYLCV pressure. In several pathosystems, extensive use of resistant cultivars with single dominant resistance-conferring gene has led to intense selection pressure on the virus, development of highly virulent strains, and resistance breakdown. This study assessed differences in TYLCV genomes isolated from susceptible and resistant genotypes in Florida and Georgia. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that Florida and Georgia isolates were distinct from each other. Population genetics analyses with genomes field-collected from resistant and susceptible genotypes from Florida and/or Georgia provided no evidence of a genetic structure between the resistant and susceptible genotypes. No codons in TYLCV genomes from TYLCV-resistant or susceptible genotypes were under positive selection, suggesting that highly virulent or resistance-breaking TYLCV strains might not be common in tomato farmscapes in Florida and Georgia. With TYLCV-resistant genotypes usage increasing recently and multiple tomato crops being planted during a calendar year, host resistance-induced selection pressure on the virus remains a critical issue. To address the same, a greenhouse selection experiment with one TYLCV-resistant and susceptible genotype was conducted. Each genotype was challenged with TYLCV through whitefly-mediated transmission serially 10 times (T1-T10). Population genetics parameters at the genome level were assessed at T1, T5, and T10. Results indicated that genomes from resistant and susceptible genotypes did not differentiate with increasing transmission number, no specific mutations were repeatedly observed, and no positive selection was detected. These results reiterate that resistance in tomato might not be exerting selection pressure against TYLCV to facilitate development of resistance-breaking strains. TYLCV populations rather seem to be shaped by purifying selection and/or population expansion.