Table_1_The metabolomics approach revealed a distinctive metabolomics pattern associated with hyperthyroidism treatment.xlsx (14.43 kB)
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Table_1_The metabolomics approach revealed a distinctive metabolomics pattern associated with hyperthyroidism treatment.xlsx

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posted on 2022-11-10, 05:21 authored by Malak A. Jaber, Hicham Benabdelkamel, Lina A. Dahabiyeh, Afshan Masood, Reem H. AlMalki, Mohthash Musambil, Assim A. Alfadda, Anas M. Abdel Rahman

Hyperthyroidism is characterized by increased thyroid hormone production, which impacts various processes, including metabolism and energy expenditure. Yet, the underlying mechanism and subsequent influence of these changes are unknown. Metabolomics is a broad analytical method that enables qualitative and quantitative examination of metabolite level changes in biological systems in response to various stimuli, pathologies, or treatments.


This study uses untargeted metabolomics to explore the potential pathways and metabolic patterns associated with hyperthyroidism treatment.


The study consisted of 20 patients newly diagnosed with hyperthyroidism who were assessed at baseline and followed up after starting antithyroid treatment. Two blood samples were taken from each patient, pre (hyperthyroid state) and post-treatment (euthyroid state). Hyperthyroid and euthyroid states were identified based on thyroxine and thyroid-stimulating hormone levels. The metabolic alteration associated with antithyroid therapy was investigated using liquid chromatography- high-resolution mass spectrometry. The untargeted metabolomics data was analyzed using both univariate and multivariate analyses using MetaboAnalyst v5.0. The significant metabolic pattern was identified using the lab standard pipeline, which included molecular annotation in the Human Metabolome Database, LipidMap, LipidBlast, and METLIN. The identified metabolites were examined using pathway and network analyses and linked to cellular metabolism.


The results revealed a strong group separation between the pre- and post-hyperthyroidism treatment (Q2 = 0.573, R2 = 0.995), indicating significant differences in the plasma metabolome after treatment. Eighty-three mass ions were significantly dysregulated, of which 53 and 30 characteristics were up and down-regulated in the post-treatment compared to the pre-treatment group, respectively. The medium-chain acylcarnitines, octanoylcarnitine, and decanoylcarnitine, previously found to rise in hyperthyroid patients, were among the down-regulated metabolites, suggesting that their reduction could be a possible biomarker for monitoring euthyroid restoration. Kynurenine is a downregulated tryptophan metabolite, indicating that the enzyme kynurenine 3-hydroxylase, inhibited in hyperthyroidism, is back functioning. L-cystine, a cysteine dimer produced from cysteine oxidation, was among the down-regulated metabolites, and its accumulation is considered a sign of oxidative stress, which was reported to accompany hyperthyroidism; L-cystine levels dropped, this suggests that the plasma level of L-cystine can be used to monitor the progress of euthyroid state restoration.


The plasma metabolome of patients with hyperthyroidism before and after treatments revealed differences in the abundance of several small metabolites. Our findings add to our understanding of hyperthyroidism’s altered metabolome and associated metabolic processes and shed light on acylcarnitines as a new biomarker for treatment monitoring in conjunction with thyroxine and thyroid-stimulating hormone.