Table_1_The Value of Whole-Tumor Histogram and Texture Analysis Using Intravoxel Incoherent Motion in Differentiating Pathologic Subtypes of Locally Advanced Gastric Cancer.docx
To determine if whole-tumor histogram and texture analyses using intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) parameters values could differentiate the pathologic characteristics of locally advanced gastric cancer.Methods
Eighty patients with histologically confirmed locally advanced gastric cancer who received surgery in our institution were retrospectively enrolled into our study between April 2017 and December 2018. Patients were excluded if they had lesions with the smallest diameter < 5 mm and severe image artifacts. MR scanning included IVIM sequences (9 b values, 0, 20, 40, 60, 100, 150,200, 500, and 800 s/mm2) used in all patients before treatment. Whole tumors were segmented by manually drawing the lesion contours on each slice of the diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) images (with b=800). Histogram and texture metrics for IVIM parameters values and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values were measured based on whole-tumor volume analyses. Then, all 24 extracted metrics were compared between well, moderately, and poorly differentiated tumors, and between different Lauren classifications, signet-ring cell carcinomas, and other poorly cohesive carcinomas using univariate analyses. Multivariate logistic analyses and multicollinear tests were used to identify independent influencing factors from the significant variables of the univariate analyses to distinguish tumor differentiation and Lauren classifications. ROC curve analyses were performed to evaluate the diagnostic performance of these independent influencing factors for determining tumor differentiation and Lauren classifications and identifying signet-ring cell carcinomas. The interobserver agreement was also conducted between the two observers for image quality evaluations and parameter metric measurements.Results
For diagnosing tumor differentiation, the ADCmedian, pure diffusion coefficient median (Dslowmedian), and pure diffusion coefficient entropy (Dslowentropy) showed the greatest AUCs: 0.937, 0.948, and 0.850, respectively, and no differences were found between the three metrics, P>0.05). The 95th percentile perfusion factor (FP P95th) was the best metric to distinguish diffuse-type GCs vs. intestinal/mixed (AUC=0.896). The ROC curve to distinguish signet-ring cell carcinomas from other poorly cohesive carcinomas showed that the Dslowmedian had AUC of 0.738. For interobserver reliability, image quality evaluations showed excellent agreement (interclass correlation coefficient [ICC]=0.85); metrics measurements of all parameters indicated good to excellent agreement (ICC=0.65-0.89), except for the Dfast metric, which showed moderate agreement (ICC=0.41-0.60).Conclusions
The whole-tumor histogram and texture analyses of the IVIM parameters based on the biexponential model provided a non-invasive method to discriminate pathologic tumor subtypes preoperatively in patients with locally advanced gastric cancer. The metric FP P95th derived from IVIM performed better in determining Lauren classifications than the mono-exponential model.