Table_1_The Potential Antipyretic Mechanism of Gardeniae Fructus and Its Heat-Processed Products With Plasma Metabolomics Using Rats With Yeast-Induced Fever.DOC

Gardeniae Fructus (GF), prepared GF (GFP), and carbonized GF (GFC) are widely used in China for the treatment of fever. However, the involved antipyretic mechanism has not been fully elucidated. In this study, rectal temperature and pyrogenic cytokines were used to evaluate the antipyretic effect of raw and processed GF in rats with dry-yeast-induced pyrexia. Reverse phase and hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography and ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry were used to acquire the metabolomics profile of GF, GFP, and GFC in rats with pyrexia. The results showed that the rectal temperature of rats treated with GF, GFP, and GFC was suppressed after 6 h (P < 0.05), compared with that observed in pyrexia model rats. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay showed that the expression of tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin 6 were suppressed by GF, GFP, and GFC. Moreover, GFC suppressed the expression of interleukin 6 significantly (P < 0.01). Of note, 11, 15, and 25 feature metabolites were identified in the GF, GFP, and GFC groups. Pathway analysis showed that GF mainly regulated the biosynthesis of valine, leucine, and isoleucine. Notably, GFP was involved in glycerophospholipid metabolism, while GFC was linked to glycerophospholipid and sphingolipid metabolism. These results suggested that GF, GFP, and GFC maintained their antipyretic effect despite heat processing. However, heat processing altered endogenous feature metabolites and certain pathways of GF, GFP, and GFC in rats with yeast-induced pyrexia to exert an antipyretic effect.