Table_1_The Influence of the Modulation Index on Frequency-Modulated Steady-State Visual Evoked Potentials.XLSX
Based on increased user experience during stimulation, frequency-modulated steady-state visual evoked potentials (FM-SSVEPs) have been suggested as an improved stimulation method for brain-computer interfaces. Adapting such a novel stimulation paradigm requires in-depth analyses of all different stimulation parameters and their influence on brain responses as well as the user experience during the stimulation. In the current manuscript, we assess the influence of different values for the modulation index, which determine the spectral distribution in the stimulation signal on FM-SSVEPs. We visually stimulated 14 participants at different target frequencies with four different values for the modulation index. Our results reveal that changing the modulation index in a way that elevates the stimulation power in the targeted sideband leads to increased FM-SSVEP responses. There is, however, a tradeoff with user experience as increased modulation indices also lead to increased perceived flicker intensity as well as decreased stimulation comfort in our participants. Our results can guide the choice of parameters in future FM-SSVEP implementations.