Table_1_The Impact of Media, Phylogenetic Classification, and E. coli Pathotypes on Biofilm Formation in Extraintestinal and Commensal E. coli From Humans and Animals.docx

Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) include avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC), neonatal meningitis E. coli (NMEC), and uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) and are responsible for significant animal and human morbidity and mortality. This study sought to investigate if biofilm formation by ExPEC likely contributes to these losses since biofilms are associated with recurrent urinary tract infections, antibiotic resistance, and bacterial exchange of genetic material. Therefore, the goal of this study was to examine differences in biofilm formation among a collection of ExPEC and to ascertain if there is a relationship between their ability to produce biofilms and their assignment to phylogenetic groups in three media types – M63, diluted TSB, and BHI. Our results suggest that ExPEC produce relatively different levels of biofilm formation in the media tested as APEC (70.4%, p = 0.0064) and NMEC (84.4%, p = 0.0093) isolates were poor biofilm formers in minimal medium M63 while UPEC isolates produced significantly higher ODs under nutrient-limited conditions with 25% of strains producing strong biofilms in diluted TSB (p = 0.0204). Additionally, E. coli phylogenetic assignment using Clermont’s original and revised typing scheme demonstrated significant differences among the phylogenetic groups in the different media. When the original phylogenetic group isolates previously typed as group D were phylogenetically typed under the revised scheme and examined, they showed substantial variation in their ability to form biofilms, which may explain the significant values of revised phylogenetic groups E and F in M63 (p = 0.0291, p = 0.0024). Our data indicates that biofilm formation is correlated with phylogenetic classification and subpathotype or commensal grouping of E. coli strains.