Table_1_Stereotactic Radiosurgery With vs. Without Prior Embolization for Brain Arteriovenous Malformations: A Propensity Score Matching Analysis.docx
Objective: Whether partial embolization could facilitate the post-stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) obliteration for brain arteriovenous malformations (bAVMs) remains controversial. We performed this study to compare the outcomes of SRS with and without prior embolization for bAVMs.
Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the Beijing Tiantan AVMs prospective registration research database from September 2011 to October 2014. Patients were categorized into two groups, combined upfront embolization and SRS (Em+SRS group) and SRS alone (SRS group), and we performed a propensity score matching analysis based on pre-embolization baseline characteristics; the matched groups each comprised 76 patients.
Results: The obliteration rate was similar between SRS and Em+SRS (44.7 vs. 31.6%; OR, 1.754; 95% CI, 0.905–3.401; p = 0.096). However, the SRS group was superior to the Em+SRS group in terms of cumulative obliteration rate at a follow-up of 5 years (HR,1.778; 95% CI, 1.017–3.110; p = 0.033). The secondary outcomes, including functional state, post-SRS hemorrhage, all-cause mortality, and edema or cyst formation were similar between the matched cohorts. In the ruptured subgroup, the SRS group could achieve higher obliteration rate than Em+SRS group (56.5 vs. 31.9%; OR, 2.773; 95% CI, 1.190–6.464; p = 0.018). The cumulative obliteration rate at 5 years was also higher in the SRS group (64.5 vs. 41.3%; HR, 2.012; 95% CI, 1.037–3.903; p = 0.038), and the secondary outcomes were also similar between the matched cohorts.
Conclusion: Although there was no significant difference in the overall obliteration rate between the two strategies, this study suggested that pre-SRS embolization may have a negative effect on post-SRS obliteration. Furthermore, the obliteration rates of the SRS only strategy was significantly higher than that of the Em+SRS strategy in the ruptured cohort, while no such phenomenon was found in the unruptured cohort.