Table_1_Small hyperattenuating adrenal nodules in patients with lung cancer: Differentiation of metastases from adenomas on biphasic contrast-enhanced computed tomography.docx
The objective of this study was to evaluate the value of biphasic contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT) in the differential diagnosis of metastasis and lipid-poor adenomas (LPAs) in lung cancer patients with unilateral small hyperattenuating adrenal nodule.Materials and methods
This retrospective study included 241 lung cancer patients with unilateral small hyperattenuating adrenal nodule (metastases, 123; LPAs, 118). All patients underwent plain chest or abdominal computed tomography (CT) scan and biphasic CECT scan, including arterial and venous phases. Qualitative and quantitative clinical and radiological characteristics of the two groups were compared using univariate analysis. An original diagnostic model was developed using multivariable logistic regression, and then, according to odds ratio (OR) of the risk factors of metastases, a diagnostic scoring model was developed. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs) of the two diagnostic models were compared by DeLong test.Results
Compared with LAPs, metastases were older and showed more frequently irregular in shape and cystic degeneration/necrosis (all p < 0.05). Enhancement ratios on venous (ERV) and arterial (ERA) phase of LAPs were noticeably higher than that of metastases, whereas CT values in unenhanced phase (UP) of LPAs were noticeably lower than that of metastases (all p < 0.05). Compared with LAPs, the proportions of male and III/IV clinical stage and small-cell lung cancer (SCLL) were significantly higher for metastases (all p < 0.05). As for peak enhancement phase, LPAs showed relatively faster wash-in and earlier wash-out enhancement pattern than metastases (p < 0.001). Multivariate analysis revealed age ≥ 59.5 years (OR: 2.269; p = 0.04), male (OR: 3.511; p = 0.002), CT values in UP ≥ 27.5 HU (OR: 6.968; p < 0.001), cystic degeneration/necrosis (OR: 3.076; p = 0.031), ERV ≤ 1.44 (OR: 4.835; p < 0.001), venous phase or equally enhanced (OR: 16.907; p < 0.001 or OR: 14.036; p < 0.001), and clinical stage II or III or IV (OR: 3.550; p = 0.208 or OR: 17.535; p = 0.002 or OR: 20.241; p = 0.001) were risk factors for diagnosis of metastases. AUCs of the original diagnostic model and the diagnostic scoring model for metastases were 0.919 (0.883–0.955) and 0.914 (0.880–0.948), respectively. There was no statistical significance of AUC between the two diagnostic model (p = 0.644).Conclusions
Biphasic CECT performed well diagnostic ability in differentiating metastases from LAPs. The diagnostic scoring model is easy to popularize due to simplicity and convenience.