Table_1_Serum exosomal and serum glypican-1 are associated with early recurrence of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.docx
The diagnostic performance and prognostic value of serum exosomal glypican 1 (GPC-1) in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) remain controversial. In this study, we detected serum exosomal GPC-1 using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and determined whether it serves as a predictor of diagnosis and recurrence for early-stage PDAC.Methods
Serum samples were obtained from patients with 50 PDAC, 6 benign pancreatic tumor (BPT), or 9 chronic pancreatitis (CP) and 50 healthy controls (HCs). Serum exosomes were isolated using an exosome isolation kit. Exosomal and serum GPC-1 levels were measured using ELISA. The freeze–thaw process was carried out to analyze the stability of GPC-1. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was employed to assess the diagnostic value of GPC-1. Kaplan–Meier and multivariate Cox analyses were used to evaluate the prognostic value of GPC-1.Results
The average concentrations of serum exosomal and serum GPC-1 were 1.5 and 0.8 ng/ml, respectively. GPC-1 expression levels were stable under repeated freezing and thawing (d1-5 freeze–thaw cycles vs. d0 P > 0.05). Serum exosomal and serum GPC-1 were significantly elevated in patients with PDAC compared with HCs (P < 0.0001) but were slightly higher compared with that in patients with CP and BPT (P > 0.05). The expression levels of exosomal and serum GPC-1 were elevated 5 days after surgery in patients with PDAC, CP, and BPT (P < 0.05). Patients with high levels of exosomal and serum GPC-1 had a shorter relapse-free survival (RFS) (P = 0.006, and P = 0.010). Multivariate analyses showed that serum exosomal and serum GPC-1 were independent prognostic indicators for early RFS (P = 0.008, and P = 0.041).Conclusion
ELISA is an effective and sensitive method to detect exosomal and serum GPC-1. The detection of GPC-1 was stable under repeated freezing and thawing cycles and could distinguish early-stage PDAC from HCs but not CP and BPT. Exosomal and serum GPC-1 may be good independent predictors of early recurrence in early-stage PDAC.