Table_1_Role of Segregation for Variant Discovery in Multiplex Families Ascertained by Probands With Left Sided Cardiovascular Malformations.XLSX (79.12 kB)

Table_1_Role of Segregation for Variant Discovery in Multiplex Families Ascertained by Probands With Left Sided Cardiovascular Malformations.XLSX

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posted on 11.01.2019 by Lisa J. Martin, Valentina Pilipenko, D. Woodrow Benson

Cardiovascular malformations (CVM) are common birth defects (incidence of 2–5/100 live births). Although a genetic basis is established, in most cases the cause remains unknown. Analysis of whole exome sequencing (WES) in left sided CVM case and trio series has identified large numbers of potential variants but evidence of causality has remained elusive except in a small percentage of cases. We sought to determine whether variant segregation in families would aid in novel gene discovery. The objective was to compare conventional and co-segregation approaches for WES in multiplex families. WES was performed on 52 individuals from 4 multiplex families ascertained by probands with hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS). We identified rare variants with informatics support (RVIS, minor allele frequency ≤0.01 and Combined Annotation Dependent Depletion score ≥20) in probands. Non-RVIS variants did not meet these criteria. Family specific two point logarithm of the odds (LOD) scores identified co-segregating variants (C-SV) using a dominant model and 80% penetrance. In families, 702 RVIS in 668 genes were identified, but only 1 RVIS was also a C-SV (LOD ≥ 1). On the other hand, there were 109 non-RVIS variants with LOD ≥ 1. Among 110 C-SV, 97% were common (MAF > 1%). These results suggest that conventional variant identification methods focused on RVIS, miss most C-SV. For diseases such as left sided CVM, which exhibit strong familial transmission, co-segregation can identify novel candidates.

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