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Table_1_Revisiting the Effects of Xenon on Urate Oxidase and Tissue Plasminogen Activator: No Evidence for Inhibition by Noble Gases.DOCX
Although chemically inert, Xe and other noble gases have been shown to have functional effects on biological systems. For example, Xe is a powerful anesthetic with neuroprotective properties. Recent reports have claimed that Xe inhibits the activity of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and urate oxidase (UOX), indicating that the use of Xe as an anesthetic may have undesirable side effects. Here, we revisited the methods used to demonstrate Xe inhibition of UOX and tPA, testing both indirect and direct gas delivery methods with variable bubble sizes and gas flowrates. Our results indicate that Xe or Kr do not affect the activity of UOX or tPA and that the previously reported inhibition is due to protein damage attendant to directly bubbling gases into protein solutions. The lack of evidence to support Xe inhibition of UOX or tPA alleviates concerns regarding possible side effects for the clinical application of Xe as an anesthetic. Furthermore, this study illustrates the importance of using indirect methods of gas dissolution for studying gas-protein interactions in aqueous solution.