Table_1_Red-Fleshed Apple Anthocyanin Extracts Attenuate Male Reproductive System Dysfunction Caused by Busulfan in Mice.XLSX
In this research, we analyzed the effect of an intragastrical oral administration of red-fleshed apple anthocyanin extract (RAAE) on busulfan-treated mice. First, we showed that the most abundant component in RAAE was cyanidin 3-O-galactoside. To determine the effect of the RAAE, the mice were divided into control and four other different concentrations of RAAE feeding treatment groups (BA0, no RAAE; BA.1, 0.1 mg/kg; BA1, 1 mg/kg; and BA5, 5 mg/kg) following busulfan injection. We observed that RAAE treatments displayed ameliorative effects on male reproductive system dysfunction caused by busulfan, such as recovering the irregular arrangements of seminiferous tubules, increasing the number of spermatogonia and spermatocytes, improving sperm concentration by 3-fold in BA.1, and improving sperm motility by 2-fold in BA1. The liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis showed significant up- or downregulation of certain metabolites, such as lysophosphatidylcholine (LysoPC), L-arginine, glycine, anandamide, and L-carnitine, which could contribute to the positive effects of RAAE, especially in PBA1 (plasma of BA1) and PBA5 (plasma of BA5). Taken together, the results indicate that 1 mg/kg of RAAE is a suitable concentration for rescuing spermatogenesis in mice. The research suggests that RAAE could be a potential nutraceutical for protecting spermatogenesis after busulfan therapy in cancer.