Table_1_Quantification of Scheduling Impact on Safety and Efficacy Outcomes of Brain Metastasis Radio- and Immuno-Therapies: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.DOCX
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Objectives: The goal of this quantitative research was to evaluate the impact of various factors (e.g., scheduling or radiotherapy (RT) type) on outcomes for RT vs. RT in combination with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI), in the treatment of brain metastases, via a meta-analysis.
Methods: Clinical studies with at least one ICI+RT treatment combination arm with brain metastasis patients were identified via a systematic literature search. Data on 1-year overall survival (OS), 1-year local control (LC) and radionecrosis rate (RNR) were extracted; for combination studies which included an RT monotherapy arm, odds ratios (OR) for the aforementioned endpoints were additionally calculated and analyzed. Mixed-effects meta-analysis models were tested to evaluate impact on outcome, for different factors such as combination treatment scheduling and the type of ICI or RT used.
Results: 40 studies representing a total of 4,359 patients were identified. Higher 1-year OS was observed in ICI and RT combination vs. RT alone, with corresponding incidence rates of 59% [95% CI: 54-63%] vs. 32% [95% CI: 25-39%] (P < 0.001). Concurrent ICI and RT treatment was associated with significantly higher 1-year OS vs. sequential combinations: 68% [95% CI: 60-75%] vs. 54% [95% CI: 47-61%]. No statistically significant differences were observed in 1-year LC and RNR, when comparing combinations vs. RT monotherapies, with 1-year LC rates of 68% [95% CI: 40-90%] vs. 72% [95% CI: 63-80%] (P = 0.73) and RNR rates of 6% [95% CI: 2-13%] vs. 9% [95% CI: 5-14%] (P = 0.37).
Conclusions: A comprehensive, study-level meta-analysis of brain metastasis disease treatments suggest that combinations of RT and ICI result in higher OS, yet comparable neurotoxicity profiles vs. RT alone, with a superiority of concurrent vs. sequential combination regimens. A similar meta-analysis using patient-level data from past trials, as well as future prospective randomized trials would help confirming these findings.
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