Table_1_Proteomic Analysis of Porcine Pre-ovulatory Follicle Differentiation Into Corpus Luteum.XLSX
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The luteinization of the follicular cells, following a LH surge, causes extensive molecular and structural changes in preovulatory follicles (POF) that lead to ovulation and ultimate formation of the corpus luteum (CL). The objective of this study was to identify proteins expressed in porcine POF before the LH surge and a new CL formed, 2–3 days after ovulation, and evaluate proteome changes associated with formation of the CL from a follicle. We used 2D-gel electrophoresis-based proteomics and tandem mass spectrometry followed by a functional analysis using Ingenuity Pathway analysis (IPA) to evaluate functional pathways associated with the luteinization process. Protein lysates were prepared from isolated POFs and from the newly formed CL. A total of 422 protein spots were identified in both structures. A total of 15 and 48 proteins or their proteoforms were detected only in the POFs and CL, respectively. An IPA analysis of a POF proteome showed that most of the follicular proteins were involved in cellular infiltration, endoplasmic stress responses, and the protein ubiquitination pathway. Most of the early luteal proteins were associated with steroid metabolism, cell death and survival, free radical scavenging, and the protein ubiquitination pathway. A comparison of a follicular proteome with that of an early luteal proteome revealed that 167 identified proteins or their proteoforms were differentially regulated between POFs and the newly formed CL (p < 0.05 and a fold change of >1.8). Proteins that were significantly more abundant in follicles included cAMP-dependent protein kinase, histone binding protein RBBP4, reticulocalbin, vimentin, and calumenin; more abundant luteal proteins included albumin, farnesyl diphosphate synthase, serine protease inhibitors, elongation factor-1, glutaredoxin, and selenium-binding protein. Proteins that were significantly altered with luteal formation were found to be associated with cholesterol biosynthesis, cell death and survival, and acute phase response. Moreover, upstream regulators of differentially abundant proteins in CL were identified that included insulin growth factor-1, sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor-1, and nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2. We have identified novel proteins that advance our understanding of (1) processes associated with differentiation of POFs into the CL, (2) possible mechanisms of luteal cell survival, and (3) pathways regulating steroidogenesis in the newly formed CL.
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