Table_1_Post-induction Measurable Residual Disease Using Multicolor Flow Cytometry Is Strongly Predictive of Inferior Clinical Outcome in the Real-Lif.DOCX (2.45 MB)
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Table_1_Post-induction Measurable Residual Disease Using Multicolor Flow Cytometry Is Strongly Predictive of Inferior Clinical Outcome in the Real-Life Management of Childhood T-Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: A Study of 256 Patients.DOCX

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posted on 24.04.2020, 04:19 by Prashant R. Tembhare, Gaurav Narula, Twinkle Khanka, Sitaram Ghogale, Gaurav Chatterjee, Nikhil V. Patkar, Maya Prasad, Yajamanam Badrinath, Nilesh Deshpande, Pratyusha Gudapati, Shefali Verma, Mahima Sanyal, Florence Kunjachan, Gunit Mangang, Sumeet Gujral, Shripad Banavali, Papagudi G. Subramanian

Background: Measurable/minimal residual disease (MRD) status is suggested as a powerful indicator of clinical-outcome in T-cell lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma (T-ALL). Contrary to B-cell ALL, reports on T-ALL MRD are limited and mostly based on molecular methods, mainly from developed countries. Multicolor flow cytometry (MFC)-based T-ALL studies are very few. Clinically relevant cut-off levels and ideal time-point for MRD assessment are still inconclusive. In view of lack of T-ALL MRD data from the developing world, we evaluated the prognostic value of MFC-based post-induction (PI)-MRD assessment in T-ALL in the context of standard practice.

Methods: We included 256 childhood-T-ALL patients (age < 15 years) treated with a modified-MCP841 protocol, which uses high-dose cytarabine during consolidation, as a part of standard hospital practice. MRD was studied using 10-color 11-antibody MFC with any level of detectable disease being considered positive. Post-induction (PI)-MRD was available in all patients, and post-consolidation (PC) MRD was available mostly in PI-MRD-positive patients (n = 88).

Results: Three years cumulative-incidence-of-relapse (3years-CIR) in PI-MRD-positive patients was inferior to negative patients (46.3% vs. 18.4%). The median relapse-free-survival (RFS), event-free-survival (EFS) and overall-survival (OS) with hazard ratio (HR) of PI-MRD-positive patients were 21.4 months vs not reached (p < 0.0001, HR-4.7), 21.6 months vs. not-reached (p = 0.0003, HR-2.01) and 37.3 months vs. not reached (p = 0.026, HR-1.64) respectively. RFS, EFS and OS of patients with PI-MRD<0.01% (n = 17) were as inferior as PI-MRD ≥ 0.01% in comparison with MRD-negative patients with HR of 4.7 (p < 0.0001), 2.45 (p = 0.0003), and 2.5 (p = 0.029), respectively. Three-years-CIR of patients with hyperleukocytosis (≥100 × 109/L) was also higher (50.5 vs. 27.6%) with inferior RFS, EFS, and OS. Among PI-MRD-positive patients, 3years-CIR, RFS, EFS, and OS of PC-MRD-positive were also inferior to that of negative patients. On multivariate analysis any-level detectable PI-MRD and hyperleukocytosis remained independently associated with inferior RFS, EFS, and OS. A combination of PI-MRD-positive status and hyperleukocytosis identified the patients with the worst clinical outcomes.

Conclusion: Detectable PI-MRD using MFC was found to be the strong predictive factor of inferior clinical outcome in T-ALL patients. The combination of PI-MRD status and hyperleukocytosis provides the most influential tool for the management of T-ALL in resource constrained settings from developing world.