Table_1_Physicochemical Factors Affecting Microbiota Dynamics During Traditional Solid-State Fermentation of Chinese Strong-Flavor Baijiu.DOCX
Spontaneous solid-state fermentation (SSF) of Chinese Baijiu involves diverse microbes from Daqu and pit mud (PM). Given that the transfer of interphase microflora during the fermentation is a continuous and dynamic process, longitudinal studies are essential to provide ecological insights into community stability and response to consecutive disturbances in the process. In this context, this study aimed to generate a comprehensive longitudinal characterization of the microbiota during the fermentation processes of Chinese strong-flavor Baijiu (CSFB) differing in cellar ages with consideration for potential relation to physicochemical variables. The microecology variations observed during the 6-years cellar SSF (SCSSF) and 30-years cellar SSF (TCSSF) processes reveal that fungal composition contributes to a larger extent than bacterial composition to such variations. Orders of Lactobacillales, Anaerolineales, Enterobacteriales, Bacillales, Eurotiales, and Saccharomycetales dominated (average relative abundances >10%) the microbiota in both SCSSF and TCSSF processes but with a different percentage in the operational taxonomic unit (out) abundances. Compared with the SCSSF process, TCSSF possessed slower microbial succession rates, which were in accordance with the profile of physicochemical properties. From a network perspective, the microbial community structure observed in the TCSSF processes was more stable than that in the SCSSF. This may benefit from the milder physicochemical conditions of the TCSSF processes, especially the temperature, which is also more beneficial to the growth of some groups that have negative effects on fermentation, such as Staphylococcus, Pseudomonas, and Acinetobacter.