Table_1_Neuroimaging and Psychometric Assessment of Mild Cognitive Impairment After Traumatic Brain Injury.DOCX (43.01 kB)

Table_1_Neuroimaging and Psychometric Assessment of Mild Cognitive Impairment After Traumatic Brain Injury.DOCX

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posted on 07.07.2020, 03:51 by Maria Calvillo, Andrei Irimia

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) can be serious partly due to the challenges of assessing and treating its neurocognitive and affective sequelae. The effects of a single TBI may persist for years and can limit patients’ activities due to somatic complaints (headaches, vertigo, sleep disturbances, nausea, light or sound sensitivity), affective sequelae (post-traumatic depressive symptoms, anxiety, irritability, emotional instability) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI, including social cognition disturbances, attention deficits, information processing speed decreases, memory degradation and executive dysfunction). Despite a growing amount of research, study comparison and knowledge synthesis in this field are problematic due to TBI heterogeneity and factors like injury mechanism, age at or time since injury. The relative lack of standardization in neuropsychological assessment strategies for quantifying sequelae adds to these challenges, and the proper administration of neuropsychological testing relative to the relationship between TBI, MCI and neuroimaging has not been reviewed satisfactorily. Social cognition impairments after TBI (e.g., disturbed emotion recognition, theory of mind impairment, altered self-awareness) and their neuroimaging correlates have not been explored thoroughly. This review consolidates recent findings on the cognitive and affective consequences of TBI in relation to neuropsychological testing strategies, to neurobiological and neuroimaging correlates, and to patient age at and assessment time after injury. All cognitive domains recognized by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) are reviewed, including social cognition, complex attention, learning and memory, executive function, language and perceptual-motor function. Affect and effort are additionally discussed owing to their relationships to cognition and to their potentially confounding effects. Our findings highlight non-negligible cognitive and affective impairments following TBI, their gravity often increasing with injury severity. Future research should study (A) language, executive and perceptual-motor function (whose evolution post-TBI remains under-explored), (B) the effects of age at and time since injury, and (C) cognitive impairment severity as a function of injury severity. Such efforts should aim to develop and standardize batteries for cognitive subdomains—rather than only domains—with high ecological validity. Additionally, they should utilize multivariate techniques like factor analysis and related methods to clarify which cognitive subdomains or components are indeed measured by standardized tests.