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Table_1_Myricetin Attenuated Diabetes-Associated Kidney Injuries and Dysfunction via Regulating Nuclear Factor (Erythroid Derived 2)-Like 2 and Nuclear Factor-κB Signaling.docx
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Background/Aims: Previous studies have suggested that myricetin (Myr) could promote the expression and nuclear translocation of nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like (Nrf2). This study aimed to investigate whether Myr could attenuate diabetes-associated kidney injuries and dysfunction in wild-type (WT) and Nrf2 knockdown (Nrf2-KD) mice.
Methods: Lentivirus-mediated Nrf2-KD and WT mice were used to establish type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) by streptozotocin (STZ) injection. WT and Nrf2-KD mice were then randomly allocated into four groups: control (CON), Myr, STZ, and STZ + Myr. Myr (100 mg/kg/day) or vehicle was administered for 6 months. Kidneys were harvested and weighed at the end of the experiment. Hematoxylin and eosin staining and Masson’s trichrome staining were used to assess the morphology and fibrosis of the kidneys, respectively. Urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio was used to test renal function. Western blotting was performed to determine oxidative-stress- or inflammation-associated signaling pathways. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed to detect the expression of fibrosis or inflammatory cytokines at the message Ribonucleic Acid (mRNA) level.
Results: In WT mice, Myr alleviated DM-induced renal dysfunction, fibrosis, and oxidative damage and enhanced the expression of Nrf2 and its downstream genes. After knockdown of Nrf2, Myr treatment partially but significantly mitigated DM-induced renal dysfunction and fibrosis, which might be associated with inhibition of the I-kappa-B (IκB)/nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) (P65) signaling pathway.
Conclusions: This study showed that Myr prevented DM-associated decreased expression of Nrf2 and inhibited IκB/NF-κB (P65) signaling pathway. Moreover, inhibition of IκB/NF-κB (P65) signaling pathway is independent of the regulation of Nrf2. Thus, Myr could be a potential treatment for preventing the development and progression of DM-associated kidney injuries and dysfunction.
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