Table_1_More Than a Metabolic Enzyme: MTHFD2 as a Novel Target for Anticancer Therapy?.DOCX
The bifunctional methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase/cyclohydrolase (MTHFD2) is a mitochondrial one-carbon folate metabolic enzyme whose role in cancer was not known until recently. MTHFD2 is highly expressed in embryos and a wide range of tumors but has low or absent expression in most adult differentiated tissues. Elevated MTHFD2 expression is associated with poor prognosis in both hematological and solid malignancy. Its depletion leads to suppression of multiple malignant phenotypes including proliferation, invasion, migration, and induction of cancer cell death. The non-metabolic functions of this enzyme, especially in cancers, have thus generated considerable research interests. This review summarizes current knowledge on both the metabolic functions and non-enzymatic roles of MTHFD2. Its expression, potential functions, and regulatory mechanism in cancers are highlighted. The development of MTHFD2 inhibitors and their implications in pre-clinical models are also discussed.