Table_1_Molecular Epidemiological Analysis of ST11-K64 Extensively Drug-Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae Infections Outbreak in Intensive Care and Neurosurgery Units Based on Whole-Genome Sequencing.XLS
Klebsiella pneumoniae (Kp) is the primary causative bacteria for nosocomial infections and hospital outbreaks. In particular, extensively drug-resistant K. pneumoniae (XDRKp) causes severe clinical infections in hospitalized patients. Here, we used pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), drug susceptibility tests, and the whole-genome sequencing (WGS) technology to examine genetic relatedness and phenotypic traits of the strains isolated during an outbreak period. Based on PFGE, a distinct clones cluster comprised of eight XDRKp was observed. These strains were confirmed as ST11-K64 via multiple-locus sequence typing database of Kp. The strains also had genes related to the regulation of biofilm biosynthesis (type 1 & 3 fimbriae, type IV pili biosynthesis, RcsAB, and type VI secretion system) and multiple drug resistance (β-lactamase and aminoglycoside antibiotic resistance). WGS data based on core-single nucleotide polymorphisms and epidemiological investigation showed that the neurosurgery unit was likely the source of the outbreak, the strain was likely to have been transmitted to the ICU through patients. In addition, the two highly probable transmission routes were in the ICU (exposure through shared hospital beds) and the neurosurgery units (all cases were treated by the same rehabilitation physician and were most likely infected during the physical therapy). Notably, the bed mattress had played a crucial transmission role of this outbreak, served as a pathogen reservoir.