Table_1_Modeling Electrostatic Force in Protein-Protein Recognition.docx (1.69 MB)

Table_1_Modeling Electrostatic Force in Protein-Protein Recognition.docx

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posted on 25.09.2019 by H. B. Mihiri Shashikala, Arghya Chakravorty, Emil Alexov

Electrostatic interactions are important for understanding molecular interactions, since they are long-range interactions and can guide binding partners to their correct binding positions. To investigate the role of electrostatic forces in molecular recognition, we calculated electrostatic forces between binding partners separated at various distances. The investigation was done on a large set of 275 protein complexes using recently developed DelPhiForce tool and in parallel, evaluating the total electrostatic force via electrostatic association energy. To accomplish the goal, we developed a method to find an appropriate direction to move one chain of protein complex away from its bound position and then calculate the corresponding electrostatic force as a function of separation distance. It is demonstrated that at large distances between the partners, the electrostatic force (magnitude and direction) is consistent among the protocols used and the main factors contributing to it are the net charge of the partners and their interfaces. However, at short distances, where partners form specific pair-wise interactions or de-solvation penalty becomes significant, the outcome depends on the precise balance of these factors. Based on the electrostatic force profile (force as a function of distance), we group the cases into four distinctive categories, among which the most intriguing is the case termed “soft landing.” In this case, the electrostatic force at large distances is favorable assisting the partners to come together, while at short distance it opposes binding, and thus slows down the approach of the partners toward their physical binding.