Table_1_L-Arabinose Transport and Metabolism in Salmonella Influences Biofilm Formation.docx (44.42 kB)
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Table_1_L-Arabinose Transport and Metabolism in Salmonella Influences Biofilm Formation.docx

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posted on 22.07.2021, 05:04 by Erin M. Vasicek, Lindsey O’Neal, Matthew R. Parsek, James Fitch, Peter White, John S. Gunn

L-arabinose inducible promoters are commonly used in gene expression analysis. However, nutrient source and availability also play a role in biofilm formation; therefore, L-arabinose metabolism could impact biofilm development. In this study we examined the impact of L-arabinose on Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) biofilm formation. Using mutants impaired for the transport and metabolism of L-arabinose, we showed that L-arabinose metabolism negatively impacts S. Typhimurium biofilm formation in vitro. When L-arabinose metabolism is abrogated, biofilm formation returned to baseline levels. However, without the ability to import extracellular L-arabinose, biofilm formation significantly increased. Using RNA-Seq we identified several gene families involved in these different phenotypes including curli expression, amino acid synthesis, and L-arabinose metabolism. Several individual candidate genes were tested for their involvement in the L-arabinose-mediated biofilm phenotypes, but most played no significant role. Interestingly, in the presence of L-arabinose the diguanylate cyclase gene adrA was downregulated in wild type S. Typhimurium. Meanwhile cyaA, encoding an adenylate cyclase, was downregulated in an L-arabinose transport mutant. Using an IPTG-inducible plasmid to deplete c-di-GMP via vieA expression, we were able to abolish the increased biofilm phenotype seen in the transport mutant. However, the mechanism by which the L-arabinose import mutant forms significantly larger biofilms remains to be determined. Regardless, these data suggest that L-arabinose metabolism influences intracellular c-di-GMP levels and therefore biofilm formation. These findings are important when considering the use of an L-arabinose inducible promoter in biofilm conditions.