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Table_1_Ketamine Alters Functional Gamma and Theta Resting-State Connectivity in Healthy Humans: Implications for Schizophrenia Treatment Targeting th.DOCX (668.56 kB)

Table_1_Ketamine Alters Functional Gamma and Theta Resting-State Connectivity in Healthy Humans: Implications for Schizophrenia Treatment Targeting the Glutamate System.DOCX

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posted on 2021-06-10, 05:51 authored by Stjepan Curic, Christina Andreou, Guido Nolte, Saskia Steinmann, Stephanie Thiebes, Nenad Polomac, Moritz Haaf, Jonas Rauh, Gregor Leicht, Christoph Mulert

Disturbed functional connectivity is assumed to cause neurocognitive deficits in patients suffering from schizophrenia. A Glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) dysfunction has been suggested as a possible mechanism underlying altered connectivity in schizophrenia, especially in the gamma- and theta-frequency range. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of the NMDAR-antagonist ketamine on resting-state power, functional connectivity, and schizophrenia-like psychopathological changes in healthy volunteers. In a placebo-controlled crossover design, 25 healthy subjects were recorded using resting-state 64-channel-electroencephalography (EEG) (eyes closed). The imaginary coherence-based Multivariate Interaction Measure (MIM) was used to measure gamma and theta connectivity across 80 cortical regions. The network-based statistic was applied to identify involved networks under ketamine. Psychopathology was assessed with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and the 5-Dimensional Altered States of Consciousness Rating Scale (5D-ASC). Ketamine caused an increase in all PANSS (p < 0.001) as well as 5D-ASC scores (p < 0.01). Significant increases in resting-state gamma and theta power were observed under ketamine compared to placebo (p < 0.05). The source-space analysis revealed two distinct networks with an increased mean functional gamma- or theta-band connectivity during the ketamine session. The gamma-network consisted of midline regions, the cuneus, the precuneus, and the bilateral posterior cingulate cortices, while the theta-band network involved the Heschl gyrus, midline regions, the insula, and the middle cingulate cortex. The current source density (CSD) within the gamma-band correlated negatively with the PANSS negative symptom score, and the activity within the gamma-band network correlated negatively with the subjective changed meaning of percepts subscale of the 5D-ASC. These results are in line with resting-state patterns seen in people who have schizophrenia and argue for a crucial role of the glutamate system in mediating dysfunctional gamma- and theta-band-connectivity in schizophrenia. Resting-state networks could serve as biomarkers for the response to glutamatergic drugs or drug development efforts within the glutamate system.

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