Table_1_Immunogenic Potential of Beer Types Brewed With Hordeum and Triticum spp. Malt Disclosed by Proteomics.XLS
Datasets usually provide raw data for analysis. This raw data often comes in spreadsheet form, but can be any collection of data, on which analysis can be performed.
The protein/peptide composition of five beer kinds, including two experimental beer-like products brewed with einkorn (Triticum monococcum), a beer labeled as “gluten-free,” a traditional all-barley malt and a wheat (T. aestivum) containing beer, was characterized with HPLC-ESI MS/MS-based proteomics. To enlarge the characterization of the components, the polypeptides were fractionated according to their molecular size (cut-off 6 kDa). All the beer types contained a variety of polypeptides arising from all the gliadin subfamilies (α-/β-, γ-, and ω-gliadins) able to induce an immune response in celiac disease (CD) patients in addition to a panel of IgE-reactive food allergens. Wheat storage proteins were heavily hydrolyzed in the beer samples brewed with einkorn. The presence of gluten-like fragments, also including the 25-mer and 33-mer-like of α-gliadin, was confirmed in beer brewed with barley and wheat malt as well as in the gluten-free beer. Both CD-toxic and allergenic peptides of all beer samples were drastically degraded when subjected to a simulated gastroduodenal (GD) digestion. After in vitro digestion, the level of gluten-like peptides assayed with the G12 competitive ELISA, was below the threshold (20 ppm) for a food to be considered as “gluten-free.” A few gliadin-derived epitopes occurred in the digests of beers crafted with wheat or Norberto-ID331 line of einkorn. In contrast, digests of all barley malt and gluten-free beers did not contain detectable gluten-like epitopes, but only minor fragments of hordeins and IgE-reactive food allergens. All beer samples evoked a weak immune response on gliadin-reactive celiac T cells isolated from intestinal biopsies of celiac patients. Compared to undigested polypeptides, the response was markedly reduced by GD digestion. Although the consumption of a moderate amount of beer brewed with barley or einkorn could deliver a relatively low amount of CD-toxic epitopes, the findings of this study emphasize the urgent need of a reliable and accurate quantification of gluten epitopes in all types of beer, also including the gluten-free one, to compute realistically the contribution of beer to the overall gluten intake, which can be responsible of intestinal tissue damages in celiacs.
Read the peer-reviewed publication