Table_1_Identification of a Novel Nonsense Mutation in PLA2G6 and Prenatal Diagnosis in a Chinese Family With Infantile Neuroaxonal Dystrophy.pdf
Infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy (INAD) is a subtype of PLA2G6-Associated Neurodegeneration (PLAN) with an age of early onset and severe clinical phenotypes of neurodegeneration. Individuals affected with INAD are characterized by rapid progressive psychomotor deterioration, neuroregression, and hypotonia followed by generalized spasticity, optic atrophy, and dementia. In this case, we aimed to identify the underlying causative genetic factors of a Chinese family with two siblings who presented with walking difficulty and inability to speak. We provided a prenatal diagnosis for the family and information for the prevention of this genetic disease.Methods
Retrospective clinical information and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of the proband were collected. Trio-whole exome sequencing (WES) including the proband and his parents was performed to explore the genetic causes, while Sanger sequencing was subsequently used to validate the variants identified by Trio-WES in the pedigree. Furthermore, prenatal molecular genetic diagnosis was carried out through amniocentesis to investigate the status of pathogenic mutations in the fetus by Sanger sequencing at an appropriate gestational age.Results
The two siblings were both clinically diagnosed with rapid regression in psychomotor development milestones. Brain MRI showed cerebellar atrophy and typical bilaterally symmetrical T2/FLAIR hyperintense signal changes in periventricular areas, indicating periventricular leukomalacia, and myelin sheath dysplasia. Trio-WES revealed two heterozygous variants in PlA2G6 associated with clinical manifestations in the proband: a novel maternally inherited variant c.217C>T (p.Gln73*) and a previously reported paternally inherited recurrent pathogenic variant c.1894C>T (p.Arg632Trp). These two heterozygous mutations were also detected in the younger brother who had similar clinical features as the proband. The novel variant c.217C>T was classified as “pathogenic (PVS1 + PM2 + PP3),” while the variant c.1894C>T was “pathogenic” (PS1 + PM1 + PM2 + PM3 + PP3) based on the latest American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG) guidelines on sequence variants. Combining the molecular evidence and clinical phenotypes, the diagnosis of INAD was established for the two affected siblings. The two variants that were identified were considered the causative mutations for INAD in this family. Prenatal diagnosis suggested compound heterozygous mutations of c.217C>T and c.1894C>T in the fetus, indicating a high risk of INAD, and the parents chose to terminate the pregnancy.Conclusion
We identified a novel pathogenic mutation that broadens the mutation spectrum of PLA2G6 and will provide clues for the molecular diagnosis of INAD. Furthermore, our study has helped to elucidate the causative genetic factors of this Chinese family with INAD effectively and efficiently by using the emerging Trio-WES strategy and providing precise genetic counseling for this family.