Table_1_Hyperdense Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma: Clinical Characteristics and Proteomic Landscape.xlsx
Hypodensity of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) during contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT) examination is common, but a minority of PDAC patients exhibit hyperdense images. The present study examined the clinical characteristics and protein landscape of PDAC with hyperdensity.Materials and Methods
A total of 844 pathologically confirmed PDAC patients who underwent CECT before surgery were included. During the parenchymal phase of CECT, patients were assigned to the hyperdense or hypodense group based on CT values. Clinical and CT characteristics for predicting relapse-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) were analyzed using the Kaplan–Meier method and Cox proportional hazards model. The expression of the tumor angiogenesis marker CD31 and stroma-related protein CTHRC1 were analyzed using immunohistochemistry (IHC) assay to evaluate differences between the two groups. Proteomics was performed to compare the possible mechanisms underlying the differential enhancement on CT scans.Results
Based on CECT, 43 and 801 PDAC patients had hyperdense and hypodense lesions, respectively. All 43 patients presented a hyperdense lesion in the parenchymal phase. The mean CECT values of the hyperdense group were higher than the hypodense group (102.5 ± 17.4 and 53.7 ± 18.7, respectively, P< 0.001). The hyperdense group had a better prognosis than the hypodense group (median RFS, 19.97 vs. 12.34 months, P = 0.0176; median OS, 33.6 vs. 20.3 months, P = 0.047). Multivariate analysis showed that age, higher CA19-9 levels (> 300 U/ml), tumor stage, tumor differentiation, tumor CT density, and adjuvant chemotherapy were significant independent prognostic factors for OS. CD31 immunohistochemical staining showed that the hyperdense PDACs had a higher microvessel density than the hypodense group (P< 0.001). CTHRC1 expression was higher in the hypodense group (P = 0.019). Sixty-eight differentially expressed proteins were found using the tandem mass tag labeling-based quantification of the proteomes of PDAC tissue samples, and 7 proteins (POFUT1, PKP2, P0DOX4, ITPR1, HBG2, IGLC3, SAA2) were related to angiogenesis.Conclusion
Patients who presented with a hyperdense mass on CECT had a higher microvessel density and better prognosis. Anti-angiogenic therapy may be suitable for these patients.