Table_1_High Fidelity of Mouse Models Mimicking Human Genetic Skeletal Disorders.xlsx (52.24 kB)
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Table_1_High Fidelity of Mouse Models Mimicking Human Genetic Skeletal Disorders.xlsx

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posted on 2020-02-04, 04:28 authored by Robert Brommage, Claes Ohlsson

The 2019 International Skeletal Dysplasia Society nosology update lists 441 genes for which mutations result in rare human skeletal disorders. These genes code for enzymes (33%), scaffolding proteins (18%), signal transduction proteins (16%), transcription factors (14%), cilia proteins (8%), extracellular matrix proteins (5%), and membrane transporters (4%). Skeletal disorders include aggrecanopathies, channelopathies, ciliopathies, cohesinopathies, laminopathies, linkeropathies, lysosomal storage diseases, protein-folding and RNA splicing defects, and ribosomopathies. With the goal of evaluating the ability of mouse models to mimic these human genetic skeletal disorders, a PubMed literature search identified 260 genes for which mutant mice were examined for skeletal phenotypes. These mouse models included spontaneous and ENU-induced mutants, global and conditional gene knockouts, and transgenic mice with gene over-expression or specific base-pair substitutions. The human X-linked gene ARSE and small nuclear RNA U4ATAC, a component of the minor spliceosome, do not have mouse homologs. Mouse skeletal phenotypes mimicking human skeletal disorders were observed in 249 of the 260 genes (96%) for which comparisons are possible. A supplemental table in spreadsheet format provides PubMed weblinks to representative publications of mutant mouse skeletal phenotypes. Mutations in 11 mouse genes (Ccn6, Cyp2r1, Flna, Galns, Gna13, Lemd3, Manba, Mnx1, Nsd1, Plod1, Smarcal1) do not result in similar skeletal phenotypes observed with mutations of the homologous human genes. These discrepancies can result from failure of mouse models to mimic the exact human gene mutations. There are no obvious commonalities among these 11 genes. Body BMD and/or radiologic dysmorphology phenotypes were successfully identified for 28 genes by the International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium (IMPC). Forward genetics using ENU mouse mutagenesis successfully identified 37 nosology gene phenotypes. Since many human genetic disorders involve hypomorphic, gain-of-function, dominant-negative and intronic mutations, future studies will undoubtedly utilize CRISPR/Cas9 technology to examine transgenic mice having genes modified to exactly mimic variant human sequences. Mutant mice will increasingly be employed for drug development studies designed to treat human genetic skeletal disorders.


Great progress is being made identifying mutant genes responsible for human rare genetic skeletal disorders and mouse models for genes affecting bone mass, architecture, mineralization and strength. This review organizes data for 441 human genetic bone disorders with regard to heredity, gene function, molecular pathways, and fidelity of relevant mouse models to mimic the human skeletal disorders. PubMed weblinks to citations of 249 successful mouse models are provided.