Table_1_Glycerol: An Optimal Hydrogen Source for Microwave-Promoted Cu-Catalyzed Transfer Hydrogenation of Nitrobenzene to Aniline.docx (5.1 MB)

Table_1_Glycerol: An Optimal Hydrogen Source for Microwave-Promoted Cu-Catalyzed Transfer Hydrogenation of Nitrobenzene to Aniline.docx

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posted on 29.01.2020 by Maria Jesus Moran, Katia Martina, Georgios D. Stefanidis, Jeroen Jordens, Tom Van Gerven, Vincent Goovaerts, Maela Manzoli, Carlo Groffils, Giancarlo Cravotto

The search for sustainable alternatives for use in chemical synthesis and catalysis has found an ally in non-conventional energy sources and widely available green solvents. The use of glycerol, an abundant natural solvent, as an excellent “sacrificial” hydrogen source for the copper-catalyzed microwave (MW)-promoted transfer hydrogenation of nitrobenzene to aniline has been investigated in this work. Copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) were prepared in glycerol and the efficacy of the glycerol layer in mediating the interaction between the metal active sites has been examined using HRTEM analyses. Its high polarity, low vapor pressure, long relaxation time, and high acoustic impedance mean that excellent results were also obtained when the reaction media was subjected to ultrasound (US) and MW irradiation. US has been shown to play an important role in the process via its ability to enhance CuNPs dispersion, favor mechanical depassivation and increase catalytic active surface area, while MW irradiation shortened the reaction time from some hours to a few minutes. These synergistic combinations promoted the exhaustive reduction of nitrobenzene to aniline and facilitated the scale-up of the protocol for its optimized use in industrial MW reactors.

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