Table_1_Genome wide association studies for acid phosphatase activity at varying phosphorous levels in Brassica juncea L.xlsx
Acid phosphatases (Apases) are an important group of enzymes that hydrolyze soil and plant phosphoesters and anhydrides to release Pi (inorganic phosphate) for plant acquisition. Their activity is strongly correlated to the phosphorus use efficiency (PUE) of plants. Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L. Czern & Coss) is a major oilseed crop that also provides protein for the animal feed industry. It exhibits low PUE. Understanding the genetics of PUE and its component traits, especially Apase activity, will help to reduce Pi fertilizer application in the crop. In the present study, we evaluated 280 genotypes of the diversity fixed foundation set of Indian mustard for Apase activity in the root (RApase) and leaf (LApase) tissues at three- low (5µM), normal (250µM) and high (1mM) Pi levels in a hydroponic system. Substantial effects of genotype and Pi level were observed for Apase activity in both tissues of the evaluated lines. Low Pi stress induced higher mean RApase and LApase activities. However, mean LApase activity was relatively more than mean RApase at all three Pi levels. JM06016, IM70 and Kranti were identified as promising genotypes with higher LApase activity and increased R/S at low Pi. Genome-wide association study revealed 10 and 4 genomic regions associated with RApase and LApase, respectively. Annotation of genomic regions in the vicinity of peak associated SNPs allowed prediction of 15 candidates, including genes encoding different family members of the acid phosphatase such as PAP10 (purple acid phosphatase 10), PAP16, PNP (polynucleotide phosphorylase) and AT5G51260 (HAD superfamily gene, subfamily IIIB acid phosphatase) genes. Our studies provide an understanding of molecular mechanism of the Apase response of B. juncea at varying Pi levels. The identified SNPs and candidate genes will support marker-assisted breeding program for improving PUE in Indian mustard. This will redeem the crop with enhanced productivity under restricted Pi reserves and degrading agro-environments.