Table_1_Genome-Wide SNP Discovery and Mapping QTLs for Seed Iron and Zinc Concentrations in Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.).xlsx
Biofortification through plant breeding is a cost-effective and sustainable approach towards addressing micronutrient malnutrition prevailing across the globe. Screening cultivars for micronutrient content and identification of quantitative trait loci (QTLs)/genes and markers help in the development of biofortified varieties in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). With the aim of identifying the genomic regions controlling seed Fe and Zn concentrations, the F2:3 population derived from a cross between MNK-1 and Annigeri 1 was genotyped using genotyping by sequencing approach and evaluated for Fe and Zn concentration. An intraspecific genetic linkage map comprising 839 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) spanning a total distance of 1,088.04 cM with an average marker density of 1.30 cM was constructed. By integrating the linkage map data with the phenotypic data of the F2:3 population, a total of 11 QTLs were detected for seed Fe concentration on CaLG03, CaLG04, and CaLG05, with phenotypic variation explained ranging from 7.2% (CaqFe3.4) to 13.4% (CaqFe4.2). For seed Zn concentration, eight QTLs were identified on CaLG04, CaLG05, and CaLG08. The QTLs individually explained phenotypic variations ranging between 5.7% (CaqZn8.1) and 13.7% (CaqZn4.3). Three QTLs for seed Fe and Zn concentrations (CaqFe4.4, CaqFe4.5, and CaqZn4.1) were colocated in the “QTL-hotspot” region on CaLG04 that harbors several drought tolerance-related QTLs. We identified genes in the QTL regions that encode iron–sulfur metabolism and zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase activity on CaLG03, iron ion binding oxidoreductase on CaLG04, and zinc-induced facilitator-like protein and ZIP zinc/iron transport family protein on CaLG05. These genomic regions and the associated markers can be used in marker-assisted selection to increase seed Fe and Zn concentrations in agronomically superior chickpea varieties.