Table_1_From Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) to Dementia in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. Implications for Clinical Practice and Disease Management: A Mini-Review.DOCX

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a progressive disease characterized by partially irreversible chronic airflow limitation. Current literature highlights that COPD patients also have an increased risk to develop Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) and dementia. Chronic patients with cognitive impairment experience a worsening of health-related quality of life, mainly because it could affect treatment self-management, medication adherence and personal independence. Moreover, they also report high levels of anxiety and depression, which are associated with disease severity, poor quality of life, poor adherence to rehabilitation programs and difficulties in self-management. In current literature, there is a lack of studies describing simultaneously the associations between cognitive impairment, dysfunctional psychosocial factors, self-management abilities and their impact on pharmacological/non-pharmacological adherence. Therefore, the aim of the present short review is to describe the implications of cognitive impairment and psychosocial factors for clinical practice and disease management in COPD patients. Due to the interaction of these factors on adherence to rehabilitation programs, self-management and rehabilitation completion, future research should investigate simultaneously the role of all these different aspects to individuate a specific clinical approach that might include specific screening tools to evaluate cognitive impairment and psychosocial difficulties. A timely specific evaluation, within an interdisciplinary approach, could help to implement a more individualized and personalized treatment.