Table_1_Extraction of Extracellular Matrix in Static and Dynamic Candida Biofilms Using Cation Exchange Resin and Untargeted Analysis of Matrix Metabolites by Ultra-High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Quadrupole Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS).DOC

Fungal infections caused by Candida albicans poses a great threat to human health. The ability of biofilm formation is believed to be associated with resistance-related Candida infections. Currently, knowledge on extracellular matrix (EM) of C. albicans biofilm is limited. In this study, we introduced ion exchange resin, i.e., cation exchange resin (CER) and anion exchange resin (AER), in EM extraction of C. albicans biofilm as well as several non-albicans Candida (NAC) biofilms under static and dynamic states in combination with vortexing and ultrasonication (VU). The metabolites extracted from the dynamic C. albicans biofilm matrix using the CER-VU and VU were identified with ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS) via untargeted filtration. Compared with other physical and chemical extraction methods, CER-VU was demonstrated to be an ideal approach with high-yield acquisitions of EM constituents including proteins, triglycerides and carbohydrates and low-level damages on fungal cell viability and integrity. The untargeted MS analysis further showed the high efficacy of CER-VU, as a large quantity of metabolites (217 versus 198) was matched comprising a great number of lipids, carbohydrates, amino acids, nucleic acids and their derivatives together with a high involvement of signaling pathways compared with the VU alone. However, combining the results from both the CER-VU and VU methods could generate more metabolites. In summary, the EM analysis of the dynamic C. albicans biofilm expands our understanding upon a comprehensive depiction of matrix components and provides another effective approach for EM extraction.