Table_1_Evolution and Comprehensive Analysis of DNaseI Hypersensitive Sites in Regulatory Regions of Primate Brain-Related Genes.XLSX (13.31 kB)
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Table_1_Evolution and Comprehensive Analysis of DNaseI Hypersensitive Sites in Regulatory Regions of Primate Brain-Related Genes.XLSX

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posted on 07.03.2019, 04:15 authored by Yueer Lu, Xiao Wang, Hang Yu, Jianlin Li, Zhiqiang Jiang, Bangwei Chen, Yueqi Lu, Wei Wang, Chongyin Han, Ying Ouyang, Lizhen Huang, Chunbo Chen, Weidong Tian, Fei Ling

How the human brain differs from those of non-human primates is largely unknown and the complex drivers underlying such differences at the genomic level remain unclear. In this study, we selected 243 brain-related genes, based on Gene Ontology, and identified 184,113 DNaseI hypersensitive sites (DHSs) within their regulatory regions. To performed comprehensive evolutionary analyses, we set strict filtering criteria for alignment quality and filtered 39,132 DHSs for inclusion in the investigation and found that 2,397 (~6%) exhibited evidence of accelerated evolution (aceDHSs), which was a much higher proportion that DHSs genome-wide. Target genes predicted to be regulated by brain-aceDHSs were functionally enriched for brain development and exhibited differential expression between human and chimpanzee. Alignments indicated 61 potential human-specific transcription factor binding sites in brain-aceDHSs, including for CTCF, FOXH1, and FOXQ1. Furthermore, based on GWAS, Hi-C, and eQTL data, 16 GWAS SNPs, and 82 eQTL SNPs were in brain-aceDHSs that regulate genes related to brain development or disease. Among these brain-aceDHSs, we confirmed that one enhanced the expression of GPR133, using CRISPR-Cas9 and western blotting. The GPR133 gene is associated with glioblastoma, indicating that SNPs within DHSs could be related to brain disorders. These findings suggest that brain-related gene regulatory regions are under adaptive evolution and contribute to the differential expression profiles among primates, providing new insights into the genetic basis of brain phenotypes or disorders between humans and other primates.

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