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Table_1_Effects of Cardiorespiratory Fitness on Cerebral Oxygenation in Healthy Adults: A Systematic Review.DOCX (660.68 kB)

Table_1_Effects of Cardiorespiratory Fitness on Cerebral Oxygenation in Healthy Adults: A Systematic Review.DOCX

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posted on 2022-03-04, 04:54 authored by Talia Salzman, Olivier Dupuy, Sarah Anne Fraser
Introduction

Exercise is known to improve cognitive functioning and the cardiorespiratory hypothesis suggests that this is due to the relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) level and cerebral oxygenation. The purpose of this systematic review is to consolidate findings from functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) studies that examined the effect of CRF level on cerebral oxygenation during exercise and cognitive tasks.

Methods

Medline, Embase, SPORTDiscus, and Web of Science were systematically searched. Studies categorizing CRF level using direct or estimated measures of V̇O2max and studies measuring cerebral oxygenation using oxyhemoglobin ([HbO2]) and deoxyhemoglobin ([HHb]) were included. Healthy young, middle-aged, and older adults were included whereas patient populations and people with neurological disorders were excluded.

Results

Following PRISMA guidelines, 14 studies were retained following abstract and full-text screening. Cycle ergometer or treadmill tests were used as direct measures of CRF, and one study provided an estimated value using a questionnaire. Seven studies examined the effects of CRF on cerebral oxygenation during exercise and the remaining seven evaluated it during cognitive tasks. Increased [HbO2] in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) was observed during cognitive tasks in higher compared to lower fit individuals. Only one study demonstrated increased [HHb] in the higher fit group. Exercise at submaximal intensities revealed increased [HbO2] in the PFC in higher compared to lower fit groups. Greater PFC [HHb] was also observed in long- vs. short-term trained males but not in females. Primary motor cortex (M1) activation did not differ between groups during a static handgrip test but [HHb] increased beyond maximal intensity in a lower compared to higher fit group.

Conclusion

Consistent with the cardiorespiratory hypothesis, higher fit young, middle-aged, and older adults demonstrated increased cerebral oxygenation compared to lower fit groups. Future research should implement randomized controlled trials to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions that improve CRF and cerebral oxygenation longitudinally.

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