Table_1_Drug Repurposing for Paracoccidioidomycosis Through a Computational Chemogenomics Framework.xlsx (380.72 kB)

Table_1_Drug Repurposing for Paracoccidioidomycosis Through a Computational Chemogenomics Framework.xlsx

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posted on 12.06.2019, 04:17 authored by Amanda Alves de Oliveira, Bruno Junior Neves, Lívia do Carmo Silva, Célia Maria de Almeida Soares, Carolina Horta Andrade, Maristela Pereira

Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is the most prevalent endemic mycosis in Latin America. The disease is caused by fungi of the genus Paracoccidioides and mainly affects low-income rural workers after inhalation of fungal conidia suspended in the air. The current arsenal of chemotherapeutic agents requires long-term administration protocols. In addition, chemotherapy is related to a significantly increased frequency of disease relapse, high toxicity, and incomplete elimination of the fungus. Due to the limitations of current anti-PCM drugs, we developed a computational drug repurposing-chemogenomics approach to identify approved drugs or drug candidates in clinical trials with anti-PCM activity. In contrast to the one-drug-one-target paradigm, our chemogenomics approach attempts to predict interactions between drugs, and Paracoccidioides protein targets. To achieve this goal, we designed a workflow with the following steps: (a) compilation and preparation of Paracoccidioides spp. genome data; (b) identification of orthologous proteins among the isolates; (c) identification of homologous proteins in publicly available drug-target databases; (d) selection of Paracoccidioides essential targets using validated genes from Saccharomyces cerevisiae; (e) homology modeling and molecular docking studies; and (f) experimental validation of selected candidates. We prioritized 14 compounds. Two antineoplastic drug candidates (vistusertib and BGT-226) predicted to be inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase TOR2 showed antifungal activity at low micromolar concentrations (<10 μM). Four antifungal azole drugs (bifonazole, luliconazole, butoconazole, and sertaconazole) showed antifungal activity at low nanomolar concentrations, validating our methodology. The results suggest our strategy for predicting new anti-PCM drugs is useful. Finally, we could recommend hit-to-lead optimization studies to improve potency and selectivity, as well as pharmaceutical formulations to improve oral bioavailability of the antifungal azoles identified.