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Table_1_Day-Length Is Involved in Flooding Tolerance Response in Wild Type and Variant Genotypes of Rootstock Prunus cerasifera L..docx
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Current and predicted climate changes scenarios require crops with an improved adaptability to mutable environmental features, such as, hypoxia for the root system. In order to overcome the reduction of oxygen, plants activate coping mechanisms and strategies. Prunus spp. are hypoxia-sensitive woody species and although many information has been gathered over the last decades, many physiological mechanisms remain unclear. To verify whether anoxic plant responses are also regulated by photoperiod, plants of Mr.S.2/5-WT plum, and its variant genotypes S.4 tolerant (plus) and S.1 sensitive (minus) to flooding, were grown in a greenhouse and were submitted to natural photoperiod (NP) and to constant photoperiod (CP) from mid-July until the first 10 days of October. From mid-September plants from each genotype, grown under the two photoperiods, were divided into two groups, and one of them underwent long-term flooding. Gas exchange parameters, energetic and biochemical activities, leaf chlorophyll contents, and stress symptoms were measured at different times, whereas soluble sugars were quantified in leaves and roots 14 days after flooding, when stress symptoms in WT and S.1 became prominent. Seasonal changes in the photoperiod played a role in the adaptability to anoxia, although flooding stress response differed among the three genotypes. Anoxia affected leaf gas exchange and S.4 flooded-leaves retained higher ACO2 under conditions of NP and CP. Leaf soluble sugar concentration differed among genotypes. Regardless the photoperiod, S.4 anoxic-leaf sugar concentration was the lowest, except for sorbitol. S.4 anoxic-roots under CP accumulated the highest levels of sucrose and sorbitol. Influences of the photoperiod were observed in WT and S.1 anoxic-leaves, whereas S.1 anoxic roots accumulated the lowest concentration of sugars, regardless of photoperiod. Leaf and root respiratory activity in flooded-plants was highest in S.4, and ADH activity increased in all flooded plants under CP but the highest activity was observed only in S.1 under NP during flooding. Results are consistent with the hypothesis that the S.4 genotype has a plastic adaptability to flooding stress, escaping from the photoperiod regulatory cross-talk system, and can better cope with the new scenarios generated by climate changes.
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