Table_1_Comparative Transcriptional Analysis of Lactobacillus plantarum and Its ccpA-Knockout Mutant Under Galactooligosaccharides and Glucose Conditions.XLSX

Galactooligosaccharides (GOS) are documented prebiotic compounds, but knowledge of the metabolic and regulatory mechanisms of GOS utilization by lactic acid bacteria is still limited. Here we used transcriptome and physiological analyses to investigate the differences in the logarithmic growth phase of Lactobacillus plantarum and L. plantarum ΔccpA metabolizing GOS or glucose as the sole source of carbohydrate. In total, 489 genes (16%) were differentially transcribed in the wild-type L. plantarum grown on glucose and GOS and the value is decreased to 7% due to the loss of ccpA. Only 6% genes were differentially expressed when the wild-type and the ccpA mutant were compared on GOS. Transcriptome data revealed that the carbon sources significantly affected the expression of several genes, and some of the genes were mediated by CcpA. In particular, lac and gal gene clusters resembled the corresponding clusters in L. acidophilus NCFM that are involved in GOS metabolism, indicating that these clusters may be participating in GOS utilization. Moreover, reverse transcription-PCR analysis showed that GOS-related gene clusters were organized in five independent polycistronic units. In addition, many commonalities were found between fructooligosaccharides and GOS metabolism in L. plantarum, including differentially expressed genes involved in oligosaccharide metabolism, conversion of metabolites, and changes in fatty acid biosynthesis. Overall, our findings provide new information on gene transcription and the metabolic mechanism associated with GOS utilization, and confirm that CcpA plays an important role in carbon metabolism regulation in L. plantarum.