Table_1_Cognitive Strategy Training in Childhood-Onset Movement Disorders: Replication Across Therapists.docx
Objective: To explore preliminary effectiveness of the Cognitive Orientation to daily Occupational Performance (CO-OP) Approach in improving outcomes in childhood-onset hyperkinetic movement disorders (HMDs) including dyskinetic cerebral palsy following deep brain stimulation (DBS) across UK clinical occupational therapists.
Methods: Randomized, multiple-baseline, Single Case Experimental Design N-of-1 trial with replications across participants. Five self-selected goals were identified: three goals were worked on during CO-OP and two goals were left untreated and used to assess skills transfer. Participants were between 6 and 21 years and had received DBS surgery with baseline Manual Ability Classification System (MACS) levels I–IV. Participants were randomized to typical or extended baseline (2 vs. 6 weeks), followed by 10 weekly individual CO-OP sessions. The primary outcome was functional performance measured by the Performance Quality Rating Scale-Individualized (PQRS-I), assessed before, during, and following treatment. Outcome assessors were blinded to baseline allocation, session number, and assessment time. A non-overlapping index, Tau-U, was used to measure effect size.
Results: Of the 12 participants recruited, 10 commenced and completed treatment. In total, 63% of trained goals improved with effect sizes 0.66–1.00 (“moderate” to “large” effect), seen for all children in at least one goal. Skills transfer was found in 37% of the untrained goals in six participants.
Conclusions: Cognitive strategy use improved participant-selected functional goals in childhood-onset HMD, more than just practice during baseline. Preliminary effectiveness is shown when the intervention is delivered in clinical practice by different therapists in routine clinical settings.