Table_1_Clinical Outcome in Patients With Intracerebral Hemorrhage Stratified by Type of Antithrombotic Therapy.DOCX
Background: Antithrombotic therapy influences clinical outcome after spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). However, evidence on the effect of different antithrombotic therapies on outcome and a comparison between different therapies is scarce, while this is important for medical decision making. Therefore, we investigated clinical outcome after ICH stratified by type of antithrombotic therapy.
Patients/Methods: We performed a cohort study selecting consecutive ICH patients from our database, excluding patients without data on medication or therapeutic heparin use. Primary outcome was poor outcome (modified Rankin Scale ≥ 4) after 90 days. Secondary outcome was mortality at 90 days. We analyzed outcome and survival in patients with ICH using vitamin K antagonists (VKA), antiplatelet therapy (AP), and direct oral anticoagulant (DOAC) compared to no antithrombotic therapy adjusted for age, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS), infratentorial localization, intraventricular extension, history of hypertension, diabetes, or stroke, and interaction between age and NIHSS.
Results: We included 916 patients (223 AP, 161 VKA, and 40 DOAC). VKA (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 3.2, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.6–6.3) and AP (aOR = 2.0, 95%CI: 1.1–3.7) were associated with poor outcome. DOAC use did not reach statistical significance (aOR = 2.4, 95%CI: 0.8–7.7). Patients who used any antithrombotic therapy had poorer survival compared to patients without antithrombotic treatment and patients using AP and DOAC had better survival compared to VKA after adjustment.
Conclusions: Patients with antithrombotic therapy have worse clinical outcome after ICH. Patients using VKA have higher risk of poor outcome and mortality compared to patients using AP. These findings highlight the deleterious effect of antithrombotic therapy in patients with ICH and stress the need for effective therapies for ICH patients.