Table_1_Clinical Characteristics of Gliosarcoma and Outcomes From Standardized Treatment Relative to Conventional Glioblastoma.docx
Background: Gliosarcoma (GS) is a rare histopathologic variant of glioblastoma (GBM) characterized by a biphasic growth pattern consisting of both glial and sarcomatous components. Reports regarding its relative prognosis compared to conventional GBM are conflicting and although GS is treated as conventional GBM, supporting evidence is lacking. The aim of this study was to characterize demographic trends, clinical outcomes and prognostic variables of GS patients receiving standardized therapy and compare these to conventional GBM.
Methods: Six hundred and eighty GBM patients, treated with maximal safe resection followed by radiotherapy with concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide at a single institution, were retrospectively reevaluated by reviewing histopathological records and tumor tissue for identification of GS patients. Clinico-pathological- and tumor growth characteristics were obtained via assessment of medical records and imaging analysis. Kaplan-Meier survival estimates were compared with log-rank testing, while Cox-regression modeling was tested for prognostic factors in GS patients.
Results: The cohort included 26 primary gliosarcoma (PGS) patients (3.8%) and 7 secondary gliosarcoma (SGS) patients (1.0%). Compared to conventional GBM tumors, PGS tumors were significantly more often MGMT-unmethylated (73.9%) and located in the temporal lobe (57.7%). GS tumors often presented dural contact, while extracranial metastasis was only found in 1 patient. No significant differences were found between PGS and conventional GBM in progression-free-survival (6.8 and 7.6 months, respectively, p = 0.105) and in overall survival (13.4 and 15.7 months, respectively, p = 0.201). Survival following recurrence was not significantly different between PGS, SGS, and GBM. Temporal tumor location and MGMT status were found associated with PGS survival (p = 0.036 and p = 0.022, respectively).
Conclusion: Despite histopathological and location difference between GS and GBM tumors, the patients present similar survival outcome from standardized treatment. These findings support continued practice of radiation and temozolomide for GS patients.