Table_1_Chromosome-Scale Assembly of Winter Oilseed Rape Brassica napus.DOCX
Rapeseed (Brassica napus), the second most important oilseed crop globally, originated from an interspecific hybridization between B. rapa and B. oleracea. After this genome collision, B. napus underwent extensive genome restructuring, via homoeologous chromosome exchanges, resulting in widespread segmental deletions and duplications. Illicit pairing among genetically similar homoeologous chromosomes during meiosis is common in recent allopolyploids like B. napus, and post-polyploidization restructuring compounds the difficulties of assembling a complex polyploid plant genome. Specifically, genomic rearrangements between highly similar chromosomes are challenging to detect due to the limitation of sequencing read length and ambiguous alignment of reads. Recent advances in long read sequencing technologies provide promising new opportunities to unravel the genome complexities of B. napus by encompassing breakpoints of genomic rearrangements with high specificity. Moreover, recent evidence revealed ongoing genomic exchanges in natural B. napus, highlighting the need for multiple reference genomes to capture structural variants between accessions. Here we report the first long-read genome assembly of a winter B. napus cultivar. We sequenced the German winter oilseed rape accession ‘Express 617’ using 54.5x of long reads. Short reads, linked reads, optical map data and high-density genetic maps were used to further correct and scaffold the assembly to form pseudochromosomes. The assembled Express 617 genome provides another valuable resource for Brassica genomics in understanding the genetic consequences of polyploidization, crop domestication, and breeding of recently-formed crop species.