Table_1_Cerebrospinal Fluid Osteopontin and Inflammation-Associated Cytokines in Patients With Anti-N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Encephalitis.DOCX
Anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (anti-NMDAR) encephalitis is an autoimmune neurological disorder. Osteopontin (OPN) is a secreted multifunctional phosphorylated glycoprotein that regulates various autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, but its diagnostic and prognostic values in anti-NMDAR encephalitis patients remain elusive. This retrospective study aimed to determine the levels of OPN and related cytokines in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of anti-NMDAR encephalitis patients and to assess their influence on disease severity so as to evaluate their efficacy as biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis. CSF samples from 33 anti-NMDAR encephalitis, 13 viral encephalitis, and 21 controls were collected. All CSF were tested for levels of OPN and inflammation-associated cytokines [interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α] via ELISA. In addition, 15 anti-NMDAR encephalitis patients without follow-up relapse were re-examined for these four parameters 3 months later. The clinical status was evaluated by modified Rankin Scale (mRS) scores. Results showed that the CSF levels of these cytokines were increased in anti-NMDAR encephalitis patients compared to controls but not viral encephalitis patients. Their levels were decreased in remission compared with that in acute stage. Moreover, CSF OPN positively correlated with IL-6, white blood cell (WBC) counts, and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels in anti-NMDAR encephalitis patients. However, no associations were found between OPN or related cytokines and mRS scores in acute stage in anti-NMDAR encephalitis patients. Overall, CSF OPN and related cytokines were increased when anti-NMDAR encephalitis patients are in acute stage and decreased in remission, suggesting the underlying neuro-inflammatory process in this disease. However, they are not qualified with diagnostic or prognostic value.