Table_1_Case Report: Barely Able to Speak, Can’t Stop Echoing: Echolalic Dynamic Aphasia in Progressive Supranuclear Palsy.DOCX (13.01 kB)
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Table_1_Case Report: Barely Able to Speak, Can’t Stop Echoing: Echolalic Dynamic Aphasia in Progressive Supranuclear Palsy.DOCX

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posted on 04.05.2021, 04:57 authored by Marcelo L. Berthier, Florencia Hoet, Álvaro Beltrán-Corbellini, Daniel Santana-Moreno, Lisa Edelkraut, Guadalupe Dávila

The diagnostic criteria for progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) incorporate two speech-language disturbances (SLDs), non-fluent/agrammatic primary progressive aphasia and progressive apraxia of speech, but overlook the inclusion of other SLDs, including dynamic aphasia (DA). Thus, there is a need to reappraise the broad spectrum of SLDs in PSP to include other presenting phenotypes. Here we report findings from the study of two elderly patients with PSP presenting with DA and irrepressible echolalia. Both patients had markedly impoverished verbal production, but their performance in other tasks (repetition and naming) and auditory comprehension were preserved or only mildly impaired. Experimental tests of DA revealed impaired word and sentence generation in response to verbal and non-verbal stimuli. Additional language and cognitive testing revealed different types of echolalia (mitigated, automatic, and echoing approval) as well as impaired inhibitory control and social cognition (mentalizing). Both patients had negative neuropsychiatric alterations (i.e., apathy, aspontaneity, and indifference/emotional flatness). Brain magnetic resonance imaging in both patients showed atrophy of the midbrain tegmentum and superior medial frontal cortex suggestive of PSP, yet further evaluation of the neural correlates using multimodal neuroimaging and neuropathological data was not performed. However, based on the already known neural basis of DA and echolalia in PSP and stroke, we suggest that, in the present cases, neurodegeneration in the midbrain tegmentum, superior medial frontal lobe, and caudate nucleus was responsible for DA and that decreased activity in these regions may play a permissive role for eliciting verbal echoing via disinhibition of the perisylvian speech-language network.

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