Table_1_Blood-Based Biomarkers: A Forgotten Friend of Hyperacute Ischemic Stroke.DOCX (43.85 kB)
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Table_1_Blood-Based Biomarkers: A Forgotten Friend of Hyperacute Ischemic Stroke.DOCX

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posted on 08.06.2021, 04:31 by Zhilan Liu, Cui Yang, Xiaoming Wang, Yang Xiang

Ischemic stroke (IS) is the second leading cause of death worldwide. Multimodal neuroimaging techniques that have significantly facilitated the diagnosis of hyperacute IS are not widely used in underdeveloped areas and community hospitals owing to drawbacks such as high cost and lack of trained operators. Moreover, these methods do not have sufficient resolution to detect changes in the brain at the cellular and molecular levels after IS onset. In contrast, blood-based biomarkers can reflect molecular and biochemical alterations in both normal and pathophysiologic processes including angiogenesis, metabolism, inflammation, oxidative stress, coagulation, thrombosis, glial activation, and neuronal and vascular injury, and can thus provide information complementary to findings from routine examinations and neuroimaging that is useful for diagnosis. In this review, we summarize the current state of knowledge on blood-based biomarkers of hyperacute IS including those associated with neuronal injury, glial activation, inflammation and oxidative stress, vascular injury and angiogenesis, coagulation and thrombosis, and metabolism as well as genetic and genomic biomarkers. Meanwhile, the blood sampling time of the biomarkers which are cited and summarized in the review is within 6 h after the onset of IS. Additionally, we also discuss the diagnostic and prognostic value of blood-based biomarkers in stroke patients, and future directions for their clinical application and development.