Table_1_Association of Four Nutritional Scores With All-Cause and Cardiovascular Mortality in the General Population.DOCX
Malnutrition is a well known risk factor for adverse outcomes in patients with cancer, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and chronic kidney disease, but epidemiological evidence on its relationship with the long-term risk of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular death is limited.Methods
A total of 20,116 adults from the United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007–2014 were enrolled. The Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index (GNRI), Prognostic Nutritional Index (PNI), Controlling Nutritional Status (CONUT) score, and Triglycerides (TG) × Total Cholesterol (TC) × Body Weight (BW) Index (TCBI) were calculated at baseline. Cox regression and the Kaplan–Meier analysis were conducted when participants were divided into three groups according to the tertiles of objective nutritional scores. Restricted cubic spline was performed to further explore the shape of the relationship between all-cause mortality, cardiovascular death, and nutritional scores. In addition, the area under the curve (AUC), continuous net reclassification improvement (NRI), and integrated discrimination improvement (IDI) were conducted to assess which nutritional scores have the greatest predictive value for all-cause death and cardiovascular death in the general population.Results
The cumulative incidence of all-cause death and cardiovascular death was significantly higher in participants with a higher CONUT score, lower GNRI, and lower PNI. TCBI showed the worst performance on grading and risk assessment. After adjusting confounding factors, the lowest PNI and GNRI tertile and highest COUNT score were independently and significantly associated with increased risk of all-cause death (all P < 0.01) and cardiovascular death (all P < 0.05) analyzed by a multivariate Cox regression model. An L-shaped association between the HR (hazard ratio) of all-cause mortality and nutritional scores (GNRI, PNI and TCBI) was observed in the overall populations. In addition, the PNI had the highest predictive value for all-cause mortality [AUC: 0.684, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.667–0.701] and cardiovascular death (AUC: 0.710, 95% CI: 0.672–0.749) in the general population compared with other nutritional scores.Conclusion
The poorer the nutritional status of the general population, the higher the all-cause mortality and cardiovascular mortality. The PNI score may provide more useful predictive values than other nutritional scores.