Table_1_Antioxidant Vitamins and Carotenoids Intake and the Association With Poor Semen Quality: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of Men Referring to an Italian Fertility Clinic.DOCX
Several studies suggested that male's diet affects fertility. This cross-sectional analysis from a prospective cohort study aims to explore the relation between antioxidants intake and sperm parameters in sub-fertile couples referring to a Fertility center. Socio-demographic characteristics, health history, lifestyle habits, and diet information were obtained. A semen sample was analyzed to proceed with assisted reproduction. Three hundred and twenty-three men were enrolled: 19.1% had semen volume (SV) < 1.5 mL, 31.4% sperm concentration (SC) < 15.0 mil/mL, 26.8% sperm motility < 32%, and 33.0% had total sperm count (TSC) < 39.0 mil. Higher levels of α-carotene were associated to lower risk of low SC [4th vs. 1st quartile, adjusted OR (aOR) 0.43, 95% CI 0.20–0.91) and low TSC (aOR 0.46, 95% CI 0.22–0.95). Higher intake of β-carotene was inversely associated with risk of low TSC. Lycopene intake was associated with higher risk for these conditions (aOR 2.46, 95%CI 1.01–5.98, SC), and (aOR 3.11, 95%CI 1.29–7.50, TSC). Risk of low semen volume was lower in men with higher level of vitamin D intake (aOR 0.25, 95%CI 0.09–0.66)]. Further research, especially, well-designed randomized clinical trials (RCT), is needed to understand how diet modifications may have a role in modulating male fertility and fecundability.