Table_1_Antibacterial Mode of Eucommia ulmoides Male Flower Extract Against Staphylococcus aureus and Its Application as a Natural Preservative in Cooked Beef.doc
The research was conducted to elucidate the antibacterial performance and mode of action of Eucommia ulmoides male flower extract (EUMFE) against Staphylococcus aureus and its application as a natural preservative in cooked beef. The antibacterial activity was evaluated by determining the diameter of inhibition zone (DIZ), minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), and minimum bactericide concentration (MBC). The changes in membrane potential, contents of bacterial DNA and protein, integrity and permeability of the cell membrane, and cell morphology were analyzed to reveal the possible mode of action. The effect of EUMFE on the counts of S. aureus, pH, color, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) of the cooked beef stored at 4°C for 9 days were studied. The results showed that the DIZ, MIC, and MBC of EUMFE against S. aureus were 12.58 ± 0.23 mm, 40 mg/mL, and 80 mg/mL, respectively. The mode of action of EUMFE against S. aureus included hyperpolarization of cell membrane, decrease in bacterial DNA and protein contents, destruction of cell membrane integrity, increase in cell membrane permeability, and damage of cell morphology. After treatments with EUMFE, the growth of S. aureus and lipid oxidation in cooked beef were significantly inhibited (P < 0.05). The pH and TVB-N values of cooked beef treated with EUMFE were significantly reduced as compared to control group (P < 0.05). The color of cooked beef samples containing EUMFE showed decreased L* and b* values, and increased a* and ΔE* values. Therefore, our findings showed that EUMFE had a good antibacterial effect on S. aureus, and provided a theoretical basis for the application of EUMFE as a natural preservative in the preservation of cooked beef.