Table_1_Amish (Rural) vs. non-Amish (Urban) Infant Fecal Microbiotas Are Highly Diverse and Their Transplantation Lead to Differences in Mucosal Immun.DOCX (73.11 kB)
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Table_1_Amish (Rural) vs. non-Amish (Urban) Infant Fecal Microbiotas Are Highly Diverse and Their Transplantation Lead to Differences in Mucosal Immune Maturation in a Humanized Germfree Piglet Model.DOCX

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posted on 16.07.2019, 14:59 by Santosh Dhakal, Lingling Wang, Linto Antony, Jennifer Rank, Pauline Bernardo, Shristi Ghimire, Kathy Bondra, Christina Siems, Yashavanth Shaan Lakshmanappa, Sankar Renu, Bradley Hogshead, Steven Krakowka, Mike Kauffman, Joy Scaria, Jeffrey T. LeJeune, Zhongtang Yu, Gourapura J. Renukaradhya

The gut microbiome plays an important role in the immune system development, maintenance of normal health status, and in disease progression. In this study, we comparatively examined the fecal microbiomes of Amish (rural) and non-Amish (urban) infants and investigated how they could affect the mucosal immune maturation in germ-free piglets that were inoculated with the two types of infant fecal microbiota (IFM). Differences in microbiome diversity and structure were noted between the two types of fecal microbiotas. The fecal microbiota of the non-Amish (urban) infants had a greater relative abundance of Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes phyla, while that of the Amish (rural) counterparts was dominated by Firmicutes. Amish infants had greater species richness compared with the non-Amish infants' microbiota. The fecal microbiotas of the Amish and the non-Amish infants were successfully transplanted into germ-free piglets, and the diversity and structure of the microbiota in the transplanted piglets remained similar at phylum level but not at the genus level. Principal coordinates analysis (PCoA) based on Weighted-UniFrac distance revealed distinct microbiota structure in the intestines of the transplanted piglets. Shotgun metagenomic analysis also revealed clear differences in functional diversity of fecal microbiome between Amish and non-Amish donors as well as microbiota transplanted piglets. Specific functional features were enriched in either of the microbiota transplanted piglet groups directly corresponding to the predominance of certain bacterial populations in their gut environment. Some of the colonized bacterial genera were correlated with the frequency of important lymphoid and myeloid immune cells in the ileal submucosa and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN), both important for mucosal immune maturation. Overall, this study demonstrated that transplantation of diverse IFM into germ-free piglets largely recapitulates the differences in gut microbiota structure between rural (Amish) and urban (non-Amish) infants. Thus, fecal microbiota transplantation to germ-free piglets could be a useful large animal model system for elucidating the impact of gut microbiota on the mucosal immune system development. Future studies can focus on determining the additional advantages of the pig model over the rodent model.

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